Urological Cancers

There are several types of urological cancers, some found only in men, and others, in both men and women.

There are several types of urological cancers, some found only in men, and others, in both men and women.

Urological Cancers in Men:

Urological Cancers in Men & Women:

  • Bladder Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer

Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a crucial organ in the male reproductive system, responsible for producing a fluid that mixes with sperm from the testicles and fluids from other glands in order to produce semen. Unfortunately, prostate cancer is a very common cancer in men – it is the 3rd most common cancer among Singaporean men.

Risk Factors: Men above 50, those with a family history of prostate cancer

Diagnosis: Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – doctor to insert a gloved finger into the rectum to examine the prostate for pain, size, firmness and spread; prostate biopsy, blood test, transrectal ultrasound

Treatment: Watchful waiting and observation, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles, which are responsible for producing testosterone and sperm for reproduction. Fortunately, testicular cancer is not common, and is also one of the most easily treatable and even curable cancers as well.

Symptoms: A lump or swelling in either testicle, a dull ache or heaviness in the scrotum.

Risk Factors: An undescended testicle, abnormal testicle development, family history of testicular cancer, as well as younger age (15 to 35).

Diagnosis: Physical examination, ultrasound, blood tests, imaging scans

Treatment: Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy

Penile Cancer

Penile cancer is a very rare cancer that only represents about 0.3% of all cancers in Singapore, according to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It usually occurs in older men (50s to 60s). Though uncommon, it is a terrible disease as patients often present late and primary tumours are often treated by disfiguring penile surgeries that can also render them sexually impotent.

Symptoms: A lump or lesion on the penis, bleeding, foul smelling discharge, difficulty retracting foreskin

Risk Factors: Human papilloma virus (HPV), smoking, phimosis, poor hygiene, not having undergone neonatal circumcision

Diagnosis: Blood tests, biopsy – to test for the presence of cancer cells

Treatment: Penectomy (the partial or total removal of the penis), conservative surgical therapy (better suited for smaller tumours and premalignant lesions)

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is the 9th most common cancer among men in Singapore, and typically occurs in older adults. It is also 5 times more common in men than in women.

Symptoms: Bloody urine, painful urination, pelvic pain, back pain, frequent urination

Risk Factors: Smoking, radiation exposure and toxic chemicals

Diagnosis: Cytoscopy (a fibre-optic tube with a light source is used to look into the urethra and bladder), biopsy, scans

Treatment: Surgery (removal of unusual growths in the bladder, total removal of the bladder), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy

Kidney Cancer

The main function of the kidneys is to filter and clean blood, as well as produce urine in order to expel waste from the body. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, which makes up 90% of all kidney cancer cases.

Symptoms: Blood in urine, a lump or mass in the kidney area, loss of appetite, unexplained weight loss, pain/ache in your sides, persistent tiredness

Risk Factors: Smoking, being obese, family history of kidney cancer, being male, having advanced kidney disease

Diagnosis: Urine tests, blood tests, X-ray, ultrasound scan, CT scan

Treatment: Nephrectomy (radical, simple or partial surgical removal of affected area), cryotherapy, arterial embolization, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, radiofrequency treatment

Dr Michael Wong from the International Urology, Fertility & Gynaecology Centre is a highly experienced and accomplished urologist. We provide a wide range of urological services, ranging from diagnostic tests and conservative treatments, to surgical treatments and comprehensive follow-ups. For a detailed and assuring assessment of your urological health, contact us at 6868-1212 today.